History of Fashion Design: Early 20th Century

Rose Bertin (1747 to 1813) and Charles Frederic Worth (1825 to 1895) should rightly be called the parents of high fashion. Bertin was the first famous dressmaker, while Charles Frederic Worth was the first designer in the modern sense of the word, as he ran a fashion house that employed many tailors and seamstresses.The two came to prominence nearly a hundred years apart, but their influence is unmistakable. Worth influenced people to wear what he said they should, setting trends much like modern fashion designers do.The beginning of the 20th century was marked by the arrival of more practical fashions. This came hand in hand with the increased freedom and independence enjoyed by women. The practicality did not mean that the style of the era was not elaborate. As a matter of fact, by current standards, there was nothing practical about the dresses of the day. The shift was, however, very important in the evolution of fashion. The increasing financial power and independence enjoyed by women fueled the fashion industry and brought it to the forefront of popular culture.As the first decade of the 20th century came to a close, the silhouette of women’s dresses changed from an S shape, a tightly laced corset creating an exaggerated hour-glass shape, to a more natural and slimmer silhouette. Around that time, the Maison Redfern introduced a tailored suit for women based on the male version, thus creating the very first truly practical item of clothing for women.The second decade was marked by more fluid lines and gowns and dresses inspired by the Orient. These were also the first clothes made for wealthy women that could be put on without the help of maids. The style incorporated turbans, exotic and bright colors, flowing pantaloons and even kimonos. This decade also marks the first fashion shows, organized by Jeanne Paquin, one of the first women to become a couturier. The other notable fashion designers of the time were Paris based Jacques Doucet and Spanish born Mariano Fortuny.The Second World War brought many changes, not least in the fashion world. Because of the war, more women than ever worked away from home, making practical clothing an imperative. Colors changed from bright and extravagant to a more monochrome and somber palette. Even after the war ended, women continued demanding practical clothes and often chose to dress like boys.The years between the two World Wars are also known as the Golden Age of French fashion, the age that gave us Jean Patou and other designers. The designers made casual chic popular, thus paving the way for the fashion we have today.

US Education Sector: A Detailed Review

The USA prides itself as having one of the top nations with the most effective and functional educational systems. The US has been consistently working towards the improvement of the country’s education-related initiatives.The government has consolidated programs that not only offer federal loans, but it also includes academic grants to eligible scholars who attempt to continue their schooling and acquire a degree in a certain field of expertise.In order to constantly ensure the correct consolidation of these initiatives, the U. S. government has established several agencies which are intended solely for the administration of education-related initiatives.First up is the U. S. Department of Education, most commonly referred to as the ED or USED. The agency, established in October of 1979, was built to ensure that efficient channels are present in terms the administration and consolidation of educational laws, policies, programs, and initiatives.The mission of the Department of Education is to”establish policy for, administer and coordinate most federal help to education, collect data on US schools, and to impose federal educational laws relating to privacy and civil rights.”For more specific concerns, the Department of Education has established a few sub-agencies or divisions, namely:a) Institute of Education Sciences – This division was created as a part of Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002 and is the primary research arm of the United States Department of Education.b) Federal Student Aid (FSA) – This division of the ED is the largest provider of financial aid in the United States in the form of grants, loans, and work-study funds. The mission of the FSA is to”ensure that all qualified Americans benefit from federal financial assistance grants, loans and work-study programs for education beyond high school.”In the year 2011, the FSA was reported to administer roughly $144 billion to almost 15 million postsecondary students and their respected families.c) National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) – This agency is operating under the United States Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences and it’s primarily tasked to gather, investigate, and share statistical data on education and public school district finance data all over the United States of America.d) Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) – Another program of the ED that has continually been aiming at achieving its major agency mission which is to”to provide leadership to reach full integration and collusion in society of people with incapacities by guaranteeing equal opportunity and access to, and excellence in, education, employment and community living.

What is the Difference Between a Small Business For Sale and a Franchise?

Franchises exist in all realms of business and are certainly not limited to food chains and carpet cleaning services. Literally thousands of businesses are franchises throughout the country and all over the world. Whatever kind of business you are hoping to purchase, you can certainly find a franchise option. Before deciding this is the best choice for you, it is essential to understand the difference between a small business that is for sale and a franchise chain.The purchase of a small business is fairly simple. The seller and you come to a decision on a reasonable selling price and papers are signed. A final date is set and you move in to take control of all the business assets and operations. Most of the time, your relationship with the seller ends after the purchase of the business, but sometimes, like in the case of network marketing businesses, the previous owner will continue to earn residual income as you successfully run the business. In almost every other case, though, you are on your own after the sale takes place.With the purchase of a branch of a franchise, the relationship between you and seller stays in place after the purchase. You become the franchisee and the seller is the franchiser. They collect a fee from you up front that pays for brand name recognition, a business model to follow, training for yourself and that of future employees as well as continuing support. You also continue to give the franchiser a percentage of your revenue to pay for these ongoing benefits. As the owner of a franchise, you must follow specific guidelines for running the business to keep it consistent with the other branches of the company. You may have noticed that every McDonald’s, JCPenney and Wal-Mart looks and operates the same. This is because every franchisee follows the procedures set up by the franchiser.Some people prefer the comparative simplicity of purchasing an individual small business while others are intrigued with the idea of owning part of a franchise. No matter which one you choose, there are countless niches you can choose from to find the best business for you to own. Remember, buying a small business franchise is much less capital-intensive than building one from the ground up, especially a franchise guru like McDonald’s. You can have the benefits of name brand recognition without the huge expenses of starting a business from scratch by finding the right franchise to purchase.